Validity Reliability; Meaning: Validity implies the extent to which the research instrument measures, what it is intended to measure. Internal consistency reliability often is measured with a statistical test called a Cronbach's alpha coefficient (Munro, 2005). The ratings were on a 4-point scale with a response format of 1 = not relevant to 4 = highly relevant. There are three types of validity that vary according to the kind of information provided and the purpose of the instrument (i.e., content, criterion-related, and construct validity). In the scientific literature there has been discussion of accepting a CVI of .78 to 1.0 depending on the number of experts (DeVon et al., 2007; Lynn, 1986). So a person who is more disabled would, in theory, have more difficulty managing his or her ADLs. Criterion-related validity Content validity The appropriateness of instruments and the extent to which reliability and validity are demonstrated have a profound influence on the strength of the findings and the extent to which bias is present. Validity is the extent to which an instrument measures the attributes of a concept accurately. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Establishing validity and reliability in qualitative research can be less precise, though participant/member checks, peer evaluation (another researcher checks the researcher’s inferences based on the instrument (Denzin & Lincoln, 2005), and multiple methods (keyword: triangulation), are convincingly used. (2005). The most common types of reliability are test-retest reliability, split-half reliability, and internal consistency reliability. Reliability in research. Consider a scale that consistently gives a person’s weight at 2 pounds less than the actual body weight. Experts were nurses with masters degrees or PhDs who were clinical providers or clinical researchers with experience with instrument development. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 39(1), 13-19. Foundations of behavioral research (3rd ed.). The two fields may share a common base of fundamental knowledge in medicine and health care but the skills set are entirely different and would involve a different set of literature as well. • Define validity. • Compare and contrast content, criterion-related, and construct validity. The scale could be quite reliable (i.e., capable of reproducing the precise measurement), but the result is consistently invalid. When creating a question to quantify a goal, or when deciding on a data instrument to secure the results to that question, two concepts are universally agreed upon by researchers to be of pique importance. Cameron and colleagues (2008) reported Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranging from .78 to .91 for the four domains of their 18-item BIBS. Go to Evolve at evolve.elsevier.com/LoBiondo/ for review questions, critiquing exercises, and additional research articles for practice in reviewing and critiquing. The error may be either chance error or random error, or it may be systematic or constant error. The authors provide an overview of the basic principles of reliability and validity in relation to quantitative and qualitative nursing research. Describe how validity relates to sensitivity and specificity in diagnostic testing. Research articles vary considerably in the amount of detail included about reliability and validity. reliability coefficient This lack of reporting, largely due to publication space constraints, shows the importance of critiquing the quality of the instruments and the conclusions (see Chapters 14 and 17). Joe loves this because he knows he can walk into this ice cream shop and always get a drink he likes that tastes the same way each time. When reading the instrument section of a research article, note that the authors will comment if a CVI was used to assess the content validity of an instrument. Statistical methods for health care research (5th ed.). In a study investigating family caregiving of older Chinese people with dementia, predictive validity of the Chinese version of the Attitudinal Familism Scale (AFS) was indicated by a significant positive correlation between familism and membership in an older cohort born in 1949 before China opened to the values of other countries (Liu et al., 2012). BOX 15-1      PUBLISHED EXAMPLES OF CONTENT VALIDITY AND CONTENT VALIDITY INDEX (2007). • Use the critiquing criteria to evaluate the reliability and validity of measurement tools. Panel feedback was incorporated and concurrence achieved that the items were appropriate and relevant for persons with a chronic illness who were experiencing fatigue” (Hoffman et al., 2011, p. 169). • Discuss how evidence related to reliability and validity contributes to the strength and quality of evidence provided by the findings of a research study and applicability to practice. The importance of using a tool which … For example, with a Cronbach's alpha of .89, each of the items in the apathy subscale appears to be measuring apathy. A reliable instrument need not be a valid instrument. An instrument cannot validly measure the attribute of interest if it is erratic, inconsistent, or inaccurate. Musfiq-Al-Mahadi B.Sc.Ag(Hons.) Two forms of criterion-related validity are concurrent and predictive. may be systematic or constant error. After viewing … Instrument: A valid instrument is always reliable. The reliability of dependent variables is an issue whose importance is dramatically underestimated in clinical research. • Discuss how evidence related to reliability and validity contributes to the strength and quality of evidence provided by the findings of a research study and applicability to practice. For instance, level of education, socioeconomic status, social desirability, response set, or other characteristics may influence the validity of the instrument by altering measurement of the “true” responses in a systematic way. Systematic error occurs also when an instrument is improperly calibrated. divergent/discriminant validity Ms in Agext 2. Cronbach’s alpha Using any example, demonstrate how you would correctly describe these two terms to a nurse prepared at a bachelor's degree level or below. Editorial. The concept of error is important when appraising instruments in a study. Validity Validity Validity is the extent to which a test measures, what it is supposed to measure. Dealing with different types of validity is what makes establishing validity in qualitative research very difficult. Content validity represents the universe of content, or the domain of a given variable/construct. Geri LoBiondo-Wood and Judith Haber The statistical comparison measure used for test-retest reliability is the Pearson's r correlation coefficient; it can range from +1.00 to -1.00. Random errors are a result of a transient state in the subject, the context of the study, or the administration of an instrument. VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH H.I.L. This is established in multiple ways. The Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale (PAIS), a 46-item scale that assesses the impact of the illness on seven domains of adjustment, was used as a measure of social adjustment in a population of breast cancer patients. Ms in Agext 2. Only gold members can continue reading. The closer the resulting number is to 1.0, the greater the internal consistency of the items on the scale. A valid instrument that is supposed to measure anxiety does so; it does not measure some other concept, such as stress. In behavioral measures, a 100% correlation would not be expected. DeVon and colleagues (2007) note that adequate validity is frequently claimed, but rarely is the method specified. To understand reliability and validity, you need to understand potential errors related to instruments. The growing importance of measurement issues, instrument development, and related issues (e.g., reliability and validity) is evident in the, Nurse investigators use instruments that have been developed by researchers in nursing and other disciplines. Discuss how evidence related to reliability and validity contributes to the strength and quality of evidence provided by the findings of a research study and applicability to practice. The I-CVI for each item was computed based on the percentage of experts giving a rating of 3 or 4, indicating item relevance …. This article will review types of reliability and validity-sometimes referred to collectively as a psychometric testing of an instrument. To do so, it is important to become good consumers of research. For example, in a study by Sherman and colleagues (2012) investigating the effects of psychoeducation and telephone counseling on the adjustment of women with early-stage breast cancer, criterion-related validity was supported by correlating amount of distress experienced (ADE) scores measured by the Breast Cancer Treatment Response Inventory (BCTRI) and total scores from the Symptom Distress Scale (r = .86; p < .000). The following examples from various articles describe how construct validity can be presented in an article. Discuss how measurement error can affect the outcomes of a research study. 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